We report the first demonstration of cw wavelength conversion from the telecommunications band to the mid-IR (MIR) region via four-wave mixing in silicon nanowaveguides. We measure a parametric bandwidth of 748nm by converting a 1636nm signal to produce a 2384nm idler and show continuously tunable wavelength conversion from 1792 to 2116nm. This report indicates that the advantages of silicon photonics may be leveraged to create devices for a large range of MIR applications that require cw operation. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America
Optical isolators are essential components in optical networks and are used to eliminate parasite reflections that are detrimental to the stability of the optical systems. The challenge in realizing optical isolators lies in the fact that in standard optoelelectronic materials, including most semiconductors and metals, Maxwell’s equations, which governs the propagation of light, are constraint by reciprocity or time-reversal symmetry. As a result, standard optical devices on chip, including some of the passive metallo-dielectric structures recently explored for isolation purposes, all have a symmetric scattering matrix and therefore fundamentally cannot function as an optical isolator. In order to break this symmetry, traditional optical isolators rely upon magneto-optical effects, which require materials that are difficult to integrate in current micro-electronic systems. The breaking of this symmetry without the need for magnetic materials has been a long-term goal in photonics. Nonlinear structures for optical isolation have been explored. However, these typically provide optical isolation only within a particular range of operating power. Here we create a non-magnetic CMOS-compatible optical isolator on a silicon chip. The isolator is based on indirect interband photonic transition, induced by electrically-driven dynamic refractive index modulation. We demonstrate an electrically-induced non-reciprocity: the transmission coefficients between two single-mode waveguides become dependent on the propagation directions only in the presence of the electrical drive. The contrast ratio between forward and backward directions exceeds 30dB in simulations. We experimentally observe a strong contrast (up to 3 dB) limited only by our electrical setup, for a continuous-wave (CW) optical signal. Importantly, the device is linear with respect to signal light. The observed contrast ratio is independent of the timing, the format, the amplitude and the phase of the input signal.
Integrated photonics has been slated as a revolutionary technology with the potential to mitigate the many challenges associated with on- and off-chip electrical interconnection networks. To date, all proposed chipscale photonic interconnects have been based on the crystalline silicon platform for CMOS-compatible fabrication. However, maintaining CMOS compatibility does not preclude the use of other CMOS-compatible silicon materials such as silicon nitride and polycrystalline silicon. In this work, we investigate utilizing devices based on these deposited materials to design photonic networks with multiple layers of photonic devices. We apply rigorous device optimization and insertion loss analysis on various network architectures, demonstrating that multilayer photonic networks can exhibit dramatically lower total insertion loss, enabling unprecedented bandwidth scalability. We show that significant improvements in waveguide propagation and waveguide crossing insertion losses resulting from using these materials enables the realization of topologies that were previously not feasible using only the single-layer crystalline silicon approaches.
Synchronization, the emergence of spontaneous order in coupled systems, is of fundamental importance in both physical and biological systems. We demonstrate the synchronization of two dissimilar silicon nitride micromechanical oscillators, that are spaced apart by a few hundred nanometers and are coupled through optical radiation field. The tunability of the optical coupling between the oscillators enables one to externally control the dynamics and switch between coupled and individual oscillation states. These results pave a path towards reconfigurable massive synchronized oscillator networks.
A nonblocking four-port bidirectional multiwave-length message router for use in photonic network-on-chip (NoC) architectures implementing two-dimensional mesh or torus topologies is fully characterized with bit-error-rate measurements and eye diagrams using three wavelength-parallel 10-Gb/s channels. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using this advanced switching subsystem within dynamically routed multiwave-length photonic NoCs.
We propose a new class of resonant silicon optical devices, consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which is passively temperature compensated by tailoring the optical mode confinement in the waveguides. We demonstrate operation of the device over a wide temperature range of 80 degrees. The fundamental principle behind this work can be extended to other photonic devices based on resonators such as modulators, routers, switches and filters.
Silicon photonics enables the fabrication of on-chip, ultrahigh-bandwidth optical networks that are critical for the future of microelectronics(1-3). Several optical components necessary for implementing a wavelength division multiplexing network have been demonstrated in silicon. However, a fully integrated multiple-wavelength source capable of driving such a network has not yet been realized. Optical amplification, a necessary component for lasing, has been achieved on-chip through stimulated Raman scattering(4,5), parametric mixing(6) and by silicon nanocrystals(7) or nanopatterned silicon(8). Losses in most of these structures have prevented oscillation. Raman oscillators have been demonstrated(9-11), but with a narrow gain bandwidth that is insufficient for wavelength division multiplexing. Here, we demonstrate the first monolithically integrated CMOS-compatible source by creating an optical parametric oscillator formed by a silicon nitride ring resonator on silicon. The device can generate more than 100 new wavelengths with operating powers below 50 mW. This source can form the backbone of a high-bandwidth optical network on a microelectronic chip.
We report error-free long-haul transmission of optical data modulated using a silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator with modulation rates up to 12.5 Gb/s. Using bit-error-rate and power penalty characterizations, we evaluate the performance of this device with varying modulation rates, and perform a comparative analysis using a commercial electro-optic modulator. We then experimentally measure the signal integrity degradation of the high-speed optical data with increasing propagation distances, induced chromatic dispersions, and bandwidth-distance products, showing error-free transmission for propagation distances up to 80 km. These results confirm the functional ubiquity of this silicon modulator, establishing the potential role of silicon photonic interconnects for chip-scale high-performance computing systems and memory access networks, optically-interconnected data centers, as well as high-performance telecommunication networks spanning large distances.
We use transformation optics to demonstrate 2D silicon nanolenses, with wavelength-independent focal point. The lenses are designed and fabricated with dimensions ranging from 5.0 um x 5.0 um to 20 um x 20 um. According to numerical simulations the lenses are expected to focus light over a broad wavelength range, from 1.30 um to 1.60 um. Experimental results are presented from 1.52 um to 1.61 um.
We demonstrate ultrabroad-bandwidth low-power frequency conversion of continuous-wave light in a dispersion engineered silicon nanowaveguide via four-wave mixing. Our process produces continuously tunable four-wave mixing wavelength conversion over two-thirds of an octave from 1241-nm to 2078-nm wavelength light with a pump wavelength in the telecommunications C-band.
We demonstrate a 120 GHz 3-dB bandwidth on-chip silicon photonic interleaver with a flat passband over a broad spectral range of 70 nm. The structure of the interleaver is based on an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with 3 ring resonators coupled to the arms of the MZI. The transmission spectra of this device depict a rapid roll-off on the band edges, where the 20-dB bandwidth is measured to be 142 GHz. This device is optimized for operation in the C-band with a channel crosstalk as low as -20 dB. The device also has full reconfiguration capability to compensate for fabrication imperfections.
We present a novel design approach for integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers to minimize their temperature sensitivity and demonstrate, for the first time, near zero spectral shifts with temperature (similar to 0.005 nm/K) in these devices. This could lead to fully CMOS-compatible passively compensated athermal optical filters and modulators.
We demonstrate the simultaneous optical manipulation and analysis of microscale particles in a microfluidic channel. Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in dielectric microspheres are excited using the evanescent field from a silicon nitride waveguide. A supercontinuum source is used to both trap the microspheres to the surface of the waveguide and excite their resonant modes. All measurements are in plane, thus providing an integrated optofluidic platform for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications.
We demonstrate a bulk silicon alternative to the conventional silicon-on-insulator photonics platform, using common CMOS process-based Si3N4 masking and oxidation techniques. We show waveguide losses as low as 2.92 dB/cm with a technique that can be implemented on the front-end of a typical CMOS fabrication line.
A novel on-chip spectrometer device using combined functionalities of a micro-ring resonator and a planar diffraction grating is proposed. We investigate the performance of this architecture by implementing it in a silicon-on-insulator platform. We experimentally demonstrate such a device with 100 channels, 0.1 nm channel spacing and a channel crosstalk less than -10 dB. The entire device occupies an area of less than 2 mm2. Based on our initial results we envision that this device enables the possibility of the realization of low-cost and high-resolution ultra-compact spectroscopy.
We demonstrate a temporal imaging system based on parametric mixing that allows simple triggering from an external clock by using a time-lens-based pump laser. We integrate our temporal imaging system into a time-to-frequency measurement scheme and demonstrate the ability to perform characterization of temporal waveforms with 1.4-ps resolution and a 530-ps record length. We also integrate our system into a temporal-magnification scheme and demonstrate single-shot operation with a 113 x magnification factor, 1.5-ps resolution, and 220-ps record length.
We report 50 Gbit/s modulation capability using four silicon micro ring modulators within a footprint of 500 um2. This is the highest total modulation capability shown in silicon using compact micro-ring modulators. Using the proposed techniques, silicon nanophotonic bandwidths can meet the requirements of future CMOS interconnects by using multiple wavelengths to extend beyond single device speeds.
We report experimental demonstration of an all-optical continuously tunable delay line based on parametric mixing with a total delay range of 7.34 us. The bit-error rate performance of the delay line was characterized for a 10-Gb/s NRZ data channel. This result is enabled by cascading a discrete delay line that consists of 16 wavelength-dependent delays and a continuously tunable delay stage. Four wavelength conversion stages based on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides were performed in order to achieve wavelength-preserving operation. The wavelength-optimized optical phase conjugation scheme employed in the delay line is capable of minimizing the residual dispersion for the entire tuning range.
We show GHz modulation in a 2.5 um radius silicon micro-ring, with only 150 mV peak-peak drive voltage and an electro-optic modal volume of only 2 um3. The swing voltage and the micro-ring modulator are the smallest demonstrations so-far in silicon. The presented approach lays the ground work for a new class of high speed low voltage modulators enabling, seamless integration of nanophotonics with low voltage digital CMOS nano-electronics.