Zhu, Xiaoliang, Kishore Padmaraju, Lian-Wee Luo, Shu Yang, Madeleine Glick, Raj Dutt, Michal Lipson, and Keren Bergman. “Fast Wavelength Locking of a Microring Resonator.” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 26 (2014): 2365-2368. Publisher's Version Abstract
Microring resonator devices require thermal initialization to match their intended operating wavelengths in a process called wavelength locking. We use the dither technique, where we apply a small periodic signal to the microring's integrated heater, to demonstrate reliable wavelength locking of a microring resonator filter to an operating wavelength at a wavelength shift rate of 0.012 nm/mu s, an order of magnitude faster than previous demonstrations. We also identify and characterize fundamental speed limits of the wavelength locking process, showing that the integrated-heater bandwidth is the limiting factor.
Cardenas, Jaime, Carl B. Poitras, Kevin Luke, Lian-Wee Luo, Paul Adrian Morton, and Michal Lipson. “High Coupling Efficiency Etched Facet Tapers in Silicon Waveguides.” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 26 (2014): 2380-2382. Publisher's Version Abstract
We demonstrate a platform based on etched facet silicon inverse tapers for waveguide-lensed fiber coupling with a loss as low as 0.7 dB/facet. This platform can be fabricated on a wafer scale enabling mass-production of silicon photonic devices with broadband, high-efficiency couplers.
Tzuang, Lawrence D., Mohammad Soltani, Yoon Ho Daniel Lee, and Michal Lipson. “High RF carrier frequency modulation in silicon resonators by coupling adjacent free-spectral-range modes.” Optics Letters 39 (2014): 1799-1802. Publisher's Version Abstract
demonstrate the modulation of silicon ring resonators at RF carrier frequencies higher than the resonance line-width by coupling adjacent free-spectral-range (FSR) resonance modes. In this modulator scheme, the modulation frequency is matched to the FSR frequency. As an example, we demonstrate a 20 GHz modulation in a silicon ring with a resonance linewidth of only 11.7 GHz. We show theoretically that this modulator scheme has lower power consumption compared to a standard silicon ring modulator at high carrier frequencies. These results could enable future on-chip high-frequency analog communication and photonic signal processing on a silicon photonics platform. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Padmaraju, Kishore, Xiaoliang Zhu, Long Chen, Michal Lipson, and Keren Bergman. “Intermodulation Crosstalk Characteristics of WDM Silicon Microring Modulators.” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 26 (2014): 1478-1481. Publisher's Version Abstract
We elaborate on and experimentally characterize the intermodulation crosstalk properties of a 10-Gb/s silicon microring modulator. Bit-error-rate measurements and eye diagrams are used to discern the degradation in signal quality due to intermodulation crosstalk. Evaluation of the power penalties with varying channel spacing are used to support wavelength-division-multiplexed cascaded microring modulator channel spacings as dense as 100 GHz with negligible expected intermodulation crosstalk.
Johnson, Adrea R., Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michael R. E. Lamont, Jacob S. Levy, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Microresonator-based comb generation without an external laser source.” Optics Express 22 (2014): 1394-1401. Publisher's Version Abstract
We demonstrate a fiber-microresonator dual-cavity architecture with which we generate 880 nm of comb bandwidth without the need for a continuous-wave pump laser. Comb generation with this pumping scheme is greatly simplified as compared to pumping with a single frequency laser, and the generated combs are inherently robust due to the intrinsic feedback mechanism. Temporal and radio frequency (RF) characterization show a regime of steady comb formation that operates with reduced RF amplitude noise. The dual-cavity design is capable of being integrated on-chip and offers the potential of a turn-key broadband multiple wavelength source. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Soltani, Mohammad, Jun Lin, Robert A. Forties, James T. Inman, Summer N. Saraf, Robert M. Fulbright, Michal Lipson, and Michelle D. Wang. “Nanophotonic trapping for precise manipulation of biomolecular arrays.” Nature Nanotechnology 9 (2014): 448-452. Publisher's Version Abstract
Optical trapping is a powerful manipulation and measurement technique widely used in the biological and materials sciences(1-8). Miniaturizing optical trap instruments onto optofluidic platforms holds promise for high-throughput lab-on-a-chip applications(9-16). However, a persistent challenge with existing optofluidic devices has been achieving controlled and precise manipulation of trapped particles. Here, we report a new class of on-chip optical trapping devices. Using photonic interference functionalities, an array of stable, three-dimensional on-chip optical traps is formed at the antinodes of a standing-wave evanescent field on a nanophotonic waveguide. By employing the thermo-optic effect via integrated electric microheaters, the traps can be repositioned at high speed (similar to 30 kHz) with nanometre precision. We demonstrate sorting and manipulation of individual DNA molecules. In conjunction with laminar flows and fluorescence, we also show precise control of the chemical environment of a sample with simultaneous monitoring. Such a controllable trapping device has the potential to achieve high-throughput precision measurements on chip.
Non-reciprocal phase shift induced by an effective magnetic flux for light
Tzuang, Lawrence D., Kejie Fang, Paulo Nussenzveig, Shanhui Fan, and Michal Lipson. “Non-reciprocal phase shift induced by an effective magnetic flux for light.” Nature Photonics 8 (2014): 701-705. Publisher's Version Abstract
Photons are neutral particles that do not interact directly with a magnetic field. However, recent theoretical work has shown that an effective magnetic field for photons can exist if the phase of light changes with its direction of propagation. This direction-dependent phase indicates the presence of an effective magnetic field, as shown experimentally for electrons in the Aharonov-Bohm experiment. Here, we replicate this experiment using photons. To create this effective magnetic field we construct an on-chip silicon-based Ramsey-type interferometer. This interferometer has been traditionally used to probe the phase of atomic states and here we apply it to probe the phase of photonic states. We experimentally observe an effective magnetic flux between 0 and 2 pi corresponding to a non-reciprocal 2 pi phase shift with an interferometer length of 8.35 mm and an interference-fringe extinction ratio of 2.4 dB. This non-reciprocal phase is comparable to those of common monolithically integrated magneto-optical materials.
Lau, Ryan K. W., Michael R. E. Lamont, Austin G. Griffith, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon nanowaveguides.” Optics Letters 39 (2014): 4518-4521. Publisher's Version Abstract
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of octave-spanning supercontinuum generation (SCG) on a silicon chip, spanning from the telecommunications c-band near 1.5 m to the mid-infrared region beyond 3.6 mu m. The SCG presented here is characterized by soliton fission and dispersive radiation across two zero group-velocity dispersion wavelengths. In addition, we numerically investigate the role of multiphoton absorption and free carriers, confirming that these nonlinear loss mechanisms are not detrimental to SCG in this regime. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Miller, Steven, Kevin Luke, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Jaime Cardenas, Alexander L. Gaeta, and Michal Lipson. “On-chip frequency comb generation at visible wavelengths via simultaneous second- and third-order optical nonlinearities.” Optics Express 22 (2014): 26517-26525. Publisher's Version Abstract
Microresonator-based frequency comb generation at or near visible wavelengths would enable applications in precise optical clocks, frequency metrology, and biomedical imaging. Comb generation in the visible has been limited by strong material dispersion and loss at short wavelengths, and only very narrowband comb generation has reached below 800 nm. We use the second-order optical nonlinearity in an integrated high-Q silicon nitride ring resonator cavity to convert a near-infrared frequency comb into the visible range. We simultaneously demonstrate parametric frequency comb generation in the near-infrared, second-harmonic generation, and sum-frequency generation. We measure 17 comb lines converted to visible wavelengths extending to 765 nm. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Lin, Jun, Mohammad Soltani, Robert A. Forties, Summer N. Saraf, James T. Inman, Robert M. Fulbright, Michal Lipson, and Michelle D. Wang. “On-Chip Optical Manipulation of Biomolecule Arrays with Nm Resolution.” Biophysical Journal 106 (2014): 394A-394A. Publisher's Version
Ramelow, Sven, Alessandro Farsi, Stephane Clemmen, Jacob S. Levy, Adrea R. Johnson, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michael R. E. Lamont, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Strong polarization mode coupling in microresonators.” Optics Letters 39 (2014): 5134-5137. Publisher's Version Abstract
We observe strong modal coupling between the TE00 and TM00 modes in Si3N4 ring resonators revealed by avoided crossings of the corresponding resonances. Such couplings result in significant shifts of the resonance frequencies over a wide range around the crossing points. This leads to an effective dispersion that is one order of magnitude larger than the intrinsic dispersion and creates broad windows of anomalous dispersion. We also observe the changes to frequency comb spectra generated in Si3N4 microresonators due to polarization mode and higher-order mode crossings and suggest approaches to avoid these effects. Alternatively, such polarization mode crossings can be used as a tool for dispersion engineering in microresonators. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Luo, Lian-Wee, Noam Ophir, Christine P. Chen, Lucas H. Gabrielli, Carl B. Poitras, Keren Bergmen, and Michal Lipson. “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip.” Nature Communications 5 (2014). Publisher's Version Abstract
Significant effort in optical-fibre research has been put in recent years into realizing mode-division multiplexing (MDM) in conjunction with wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) to enable further scaling of the communication bandwidth per fibre. In contrast, almost all integrated photonics operate exclusively in the single-mode regime. MDM is rarely considered for integrated photonics because of the difficulty in coupling selectively to high-order modes, which usually results in high inter-modal crosstalk. Here we show the first microring-based demonstration of on-chip WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing with low modal crosstalk and loss. Our approach can potentially increase the aggregate data rate by many times for on-chip ultrahigh bandwidth communications.
Guha, Biswajeet, Jaime Cardenas, and Michal Lipson. “Athermal silicon microring resonators with titanium oxide cladding.” Optics Express 21 (2013): 26557-26563. Abstract
We describe a novel approach for CMOS-compatible passively temperature insensitive silicon based optical devices using titanium oxide cladding which has a negative thermo-optic (TO) effect. We engineer the mode confinement in Si and TiO2 such that positive TO of Si is exactly cancelled out by negative TO of TiO2. We demonstrate robust operation of the resulting device over 35 degrees. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Lee, Yoon Ho Daniel, Michael O. Thompson, and Michal Lipson. “Deposited low temperature silicon GHz modulator.” Optics Express 21 (2013): 26688-26692. Abstract
We demonstrate gigahertz electro-optic modulator fabricated on low temperature polysilicon using excimer laser annealing technique compatible with CMOS backend integration. Carrier injection modulation at 3 Gbps is achieved. These results open up an array of possibilities for silicon photonics including photonics on DRAM and on flexible substrates. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Soltani, Mohammad, James Inman, Michal Lipson, and Michelle D. Wang. “Electro-Optofluidicis: Achieving Dynamic Control On-Chip.” Biophysical Journal 104 (2013): 503A-503A.
Cardenas, Jaime, Mian Zhang, Christopher T. Phare, Shreyas Y. Shah, Carl B. Poitras, Biswajeet Guha, and Michal Lipson. “High Q SiC microresonators.” Optics Express 21 (2013): 16882-16887. Abstract
We demonstrate photonic devices based on standard 3C SiC epitaxially grown on silicon. We achieve high optical confinement by taking advantage of the high stiffness of SiC and undercutting the underlying silicon substrate. We demonstrate a 20 mu m radius suspended microring resonator with Q=14,100 fabricated on commercially available SiC-on-silicon substrates. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Cardenas, Jaime, Paul A. Morton, Jacob B. Khurgin, Austin Griffith, Carl B. Poitras, Kyle Preston, and Michal Lipson. “Linearized silicon modulator based on a ring assisted Mach Zehnder inteferometer.” Optics Express 21 (2013): 22549-22557. Abstract
We demonstrate a Linearized Ring Assisted Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (L-RAMZI) modulator in a miniature silicon device. We measure a record high degree of linearization for a silicon device, with a Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) of 106dB/Hz(2)/(3) at 1GHz, and 99dB/Hz(2)/(3) at 10GHz. (c) 2013 Optical Society of America
Saha, Kasturi, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Bonggu Shim, Jacob S. Levy, Reza Salem, Adrea R. Johnson, Mark A. Foster, Michael R. E. Lamont, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs.” Optics Express 21 (2013): 1335-1343. Abstract
We investigate simultaneously the temporal and optical and radio-frequency spectral properties of parametric frequency combs generated in silicon-nitride microresonators and observe that the system undergoes a transition to a mode-locked state. We demonstrate the generation of sub-200-fs pulses at a repetition rate of 99 GHz. Our calculations show that pulse generation in this system is consistent with soliton modelocking. Ultimately, such parametric devices offer the potential of producing ultra-short laser pulses from the visible to mid-infrared regime at repetition rates from GHz to THz. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Moss, David J., Roberto Morandotti, Alexander L. Gaeta, and Michal Lipson. “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics.” Nature Photonics 7 (2013): 597-607. Abstract
Nonlinear photonic chips can generate and process signals all-optically with far superior performance to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunication wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. We review recent progress in non-silicon CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, with a focus on Si3N4 and Hydex (R). These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement. We highlight their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications.
Luke, Kevin, Avik Dutt, Carl B. Poitras, and Michal Lipson. “Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators.” Optics Express 21 (2013): 22829-22833. Abstract
Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonators are critical for a variety of photonic devices. However the intrinsically high film stress of silicon nitride has limited both the optical confinement and quality factor (Q) of ring resonators. We show that stress in Si3N4 films can be overcome by introducing mechanical trenches for isolating photonic devices from propagating cracks. We demonstrate a Si3N4 ring resonator with an intrinsic quality factor of 7 million, corresponding to a propagation loss of 4.2 dB/m. This is the highest quality factor reported to date for high confinement Si3N4 ring resonators in the 1550 nm wavelength range. (c) 2013 Optical Society of America