Optical trapping is a powerful manipulation and measurement technique widely used in the biological and materials sciences(1-8). Miniaturizing optical trap instruments onto optofluidic platforms holds promise for high-throughput lab-on-a-chip applications(9-16). However, a persistent challenge with existing optofluidic devices has been achieving controlled and precise manipulation of trapped particles. Here, we report a new class of on-chip optical trapping devices. Using photonic interference functionalities, an array of stable, three-dimensional on-chip optical traps is formed at the antinodes of a standing-wave evanescent field on a nanophotonic waveguide. By employing the thermo-optic effect via integrated electric microheaters, the traps can be repositioned at high speed (similar to 30 kHz) with nanometre precision. We demonstrate sorting and manipulation of individual DNA molecules. In conjunction with laminar flows and fluorescence, we also show precise control of the chemical environment of a sample with simultaneous monitoring. Such a controllable trapping device has the potential to achieve high-throughput precision measurements on chip.
Photons are neutral particles that do not interact directly with a magnetic field. However, recent theoretical work has shown that an effective magnetic field for photons can exist if the phase of light changes with its direction of propagation. This direction-dependent phase indicates the presence of an effective magnetic field, as shown experimentally for electrons in the Aharonov-Bohm experiment. Here, we replicate this experiment using photons. To create this effective magnetic field we construct an on-chip silicon-based Ramsey-type interferometer. This interferometer has been traditionally used to probe the phase of atomic states and here we apply it to probe the phase of photonic states. We experimentally observe an effective magnetic flux between 0 and 2 pi corresponding to a non-reciprocal 2 pi phase shift with an interferometer length of 8.35 mm and an interference-fringe extinction ratio of 2.4 dB. This non-reciprocal phase is comparable to those of common monolithically integrated magneto-optical materials.
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of octave-spanning supercontinuum generation (SCG) on a silicon chip, spanning from the telecommunications c-band near 1.5 m to the mid-infrared region beyond 3.6 mu m. The SCG presented here is characterized by soliton fission and dispersive radiation across two zero group-velocity dispersion wavelengths. In addition, we numerically investigate the role of multiphoton absorption and free carriers, confirming that these nonlinear loss mechanisms are not detrimental to SCG in this regime. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Microresonator-based frequency comb generation at or near visible wavelengths would enable applications in precise optical clocks, frequency metrology, and biomedical imaging. Comb generation in the visible has been limited by strong material dispersion and loss at short wavelengths, and only very narrowband comb generation has reached below 800 nm. We use the second-order optical nonlinearity in an integrated high-Q silicon nitride ring resonator cavity to convert a near-infrared frequency comb into the visible range. We simultaneously demonstrate parametric frequency comb generation in the near-infrared, second-harmonic generation, and sum-frequency generation. We measure 17 comb lines converted to visible wavelengths extending to 765 nm. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
We observe strong modal coupling between the TE00 and TM00 modes in Si3N4 ring resonators revealed by avoided crossings of the corresponding resonances. Such couplings result in significant shifts of the resonance frequencies over a wide range around the crossing points. This leads to an effective dispersion that is one order of magnitude larger than the intrinsic dispersion and creates broad windows of anomalous dispersion. We also observe the changes to frequency comb spectra generated in Si3N4 microresonators due to polarization mode and higher-order mode crossings and suggest approaches to avoid these effects. Alternatively, such polarization mode crossings can be used as a tool for dispersion engineering in microresonators. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Significant effort in optical-fibre research has been put in recent years into realizing mode-division multiplexing (MDM) in conjunction with wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) to enable further scaling of the communication bandwidth per fibre. In contrast, almost all integrated photonics operate exclusively in the single-mode regime. MDM is rarely considered for integrated photonics because of the difficulty in coupling selectively to high-order modes, which usually results in high inter-modal crosstalk. Here we show the first microring-based demonstration of on-chip WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing with low modal crosstalk and loss. Our approach can potentially increase the aggregate data rate by many times for on-chip ultrahigh bandwidth communications.
We describe a novel approach for CMOS-compatible passively temperature insensitive silicon based optical devices using titanium oxide cladding which has a negative thermo-optic (TO) effect. We engineer the mode confinement in Si and TiO2 such that positive TO of Si is exactly cancelled out by negative TO of TiO2. We demonstrate robust operation of the resulting device over 35 degrees. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
We demonstrate gigahertz electro-optic modulator fabricated on low temperature polysilicon using excimer laser annealing technique compatible with CMOS backend integration. Carrier injection modulation at 3 Gbps is achieved. These results open up an array of possibilities for silicon photonics including photonics on DRAM and on flexible substrates. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Cardenas, Jaime, Mian Zhang, Christopher T. Phare, Shreyas Y. Shah, Carl B. Poitras, Biswajeet Guha, and Michal Lipson. “High Q SiC microresonators.” Optics Express 21 (2013): 16882-16887. Abstract
We demonstrate photonic devices based on standard 3C SiC epitaxially grown on silicon. We achieve high optical confinement by taking advantage of the high stiffness of SiC and undercutting the underlying silicon substrate. We demonstrate a 20 mu m radius suspended microring resonator with Q=14,100 fabricated on commercially available SiC-on-silicon substrates. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
We demonstrate a Linearized Ring Assisted Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (L-RAMZI) modulator in a miniature silicon device. We measure a record high degree of linearization for a silicon device, with a Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) of 106dB/Hz(2)/(3) at 1GHz, and 99dB/Hz(2)/(3) at 10GHz. (c) 2013 Optical Society of America
We investigate simultaneously the temporal and optical and radio-frequency spectral properties of parametric frequency combs generated in silicon-nitride microresonators and observe that the system undergoes a transition to a mode-locked state. We demonstrate the generation of sub-200-fs pulses at a repetition rate of 99 GHz. Our calculations show that pulse generation in this system is consistent with soliton modelocking. Ultimately, such parametric devices offer the potential of producing ultra-short laser pulses from the visible to mid-infrared regime at repetition rates from GHz to THz. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Nonlinear photonic chips can generate and process signals all-optically with far superior performance to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunication wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. We review recent progress in non-silicon CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, with a focus on Si3N4 and Hydex (R). These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement. We highlight their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications.
Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonators are critical for a variety of photonic devices. However the intrinsically high film stress of silicon nitride has limited both the optical confinement and quality factor (Q) of ring resonators. We show that stress in Si3N4 films can be overcome by introducing mechanical trenches for isolating photonic devices from propagating cracks. We demonstrate a Si3N4 ring resonator with an intrinsic quality factor of 7 million, corresponding to a propagation loss of 4.2 dB/m. This is the highest quality factor reported to date for high confinement Si3N4 ring resonators in the 1550 nm wavelength range. (c) 2013 Optical Society of America
We present a new technique for the design of transformation-optics devices based on large-scale optimization to achieve the optimal effective isotropic dielectric materials within prescribed index bounds, which is computationally cheap because transformation optics circumvents the need to solve Maxwell's equations at each step. We apply this technique to the design of multimode waveguide bends (realized experimentally in a previous paper) and mode squeezers, in which all modes are transported equally without scattering. In addition to the optimization, a key point is the identification of the correct boundary conditions to ensure reflectionless coupling to untransformed regions while allowing maximum flexibility in the optimization. Many previous authors in transformation optics used a certain kind of quasiconformal map which overconstrained the problem by requiring that the entire boundary shape be specified a priori while at the same time underconstraining the problem by employing "slipping" boundary conditions that permit unwanted interface reflections. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
We experimentally demonstrate selective control of the Q and transmission of an individual resonance of an optical microcavity by optically controlling its intracavity loss via inverse Raman scattering. A strongly overcoupled resonance is brought into critical coupling with continuous tuning of the on-resonance transmission by >9 dB and reduction of the intrinsic Q factor by more than a factor of five. Adjacent resonances experience minimal disturbance and can be selectively controlled by tuning the control beam to the appropriate control resonance. These dynamics are analogous to Zeno effects observed in decoherence-driven atomic ensembles and two-level systems.
We demonstrate asynchronous, single-shot characterization of an ultrafast, high-repetition-rate pulse source using a time-lens-based temporal magnifier. We measure a 225 GHz repetition-rate pulse train from a microresonator-based frequency comb. In addition, we show that such a system can be used as a frequency compressor for real-time, high-speed RF spectral characterization. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America
We demonstrate a new class of passively temperature stabilized resonant silicon electro-optic modulators. The modulators consist of a ring resonator coupled to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with tailored thermal properties. We demonstrate 2 GHz continuous modulation over a temperature range of 35 degrees C and describe the scalability and design rules for such a device. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America
We report the first experimental demonstration of broadband frequency comb generation from a single-frequency pump laser at 1-mu m using parametric oscillation in a high-Q silicon-nitride ring resonator. The resonator dispersion is engineered to have a broad anomalous group velocity dispersion region near the pump wavelength for efficient parametric four-wave mixing. The comb spans 55 THz with a 230-GHz free spectral range. These results demonstrate the powerful advantage of dispersion engineering in chip-based devices for producing combs with a wide range of pump wavelengths. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America