Klenner, Alexander, Aline S. Mayer, Adrea R. Johnson, Kevin Luke, Michael R. E. Lamont, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michal Lipson, Alexander L. Gaeta, and Ursula Keller. “Gigahertz frequency comb offset stabilization based on supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides.” Opt. Express 24 (2016): 11043–11053. Publisher's Version Abstract
Silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides represent a novel photonic platform that is ideally suited for energy efficient and ultrabroadband nonlinear interactions from the visible to the mid-infrared. Chip-based supercontinuum generation in Si3N4 offers a path towards a fully-integrated and highly compact comb source for sensing and time-and-frequency metrology applications. We demonstrate the first successful frequency comb offset stabilization that utilizes a Si3N4 waveguide for octave-spanning supercontinuum generation and achieve the lowest integrated residual phase noise of any diode-pumped gigahertz laser comb to date. In addition, we perform a direct comparison to a standard silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using the same ultrafast solid-state laser oscillator operating at 1 &\#x00B5;m. We identify the minimal role of Raman scattering in Si3N4 as a key benefit that allows to overcome the fundamental limitations of silica fibers set by Raman-induced self-frequency shift.
Johnson, Adrea R., Aline S. Mayer, Alexander Klenner, Kevin Luke, Erin S. Lamb, Michael R. E. Lamont, Chaitanya Joshi, et al.. “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in a silicon nitride waveguide.” Opt. Lett. 40 (2015): 5117–5120. Publisher's Version Abstract
We demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum spanning more than 1.4 octaves in a silicon nitride waveguide using sub-100-fs pulses at 1µm generated by either a 53-MHz, diode-pumped ytterbium (Yb) fiber laser or a 1-GHz, Yb:CaAlGdO4 (Yb:CALGO) laser. Our numerical simulations show that the broadband supercontinuum is fully coherent, and a spectral interference measurement is used to verify that the supercontinuum generated with the Yb:CALGO laser possesses a high degree of coherence over the majority of its spectral bandwidth. This coherent spectrum may be utilized for optical coherence tomography, spectroscopy, and frequency metrology.
Johnson, Adrea R., Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michael R. E. Lamont, Jacob S. Levy, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Microresonator-based comb generation without an external laser source.” Optics Express 22 (2014): 1394-1401. Publisher's Version Abstract
We demonstrate a fiber-microresonator dual-cavity architecture with which we generate 880 nm of comb bandwidth without the need for a continuous-wave pump laser. Comb generation with this pumping scheme is greatly simplified as compared to pumping with a single frequency laser, and the generated combs are inherently robust due to the intrinsic feedback mechanism. Temporal and radio frequency (RF) characterization show a regime of steady comb formation that operates with reduced RF amplitude noise. The dual-cavity design is capable of being integrated on-chip and offers the potential of a turn-key broadband multiple wavelength source. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Ramelow, Sven, Alessandro Farsi, Stephane Clemmen, Jacob S. Levy, Adrea R. Johnson, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michael R. E. Lamont, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Strong polarization mode coupling in microresonators.” Optics Letters 39 (2014): 5134-5137. Publisher's Version Abstract
We observe strong modal coupling between the TE00 and TM00 modes in Si3N4 ring resonators revealed by avoided crossings of the corresponding resonances. Such couplings result in significant shifts of the resonance frequencies over a wide range around the crossing points. This leads to an effective dispersion that is one order of magnitude larger than the intrinsic dispersion and creates broad windows of anomalous dispersion. We also observe the changes to frequency comb spectra generated in Si3N4 microresonators due to polarization mode and higher-order mode crossings and suggest approaches to avoid these effects. Alternatively, such polarization mode crossings can be used as a tool for dispersion engineering in microresonators. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Saha, Kasturi, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Bonggu Shim, Jacob S. Levy, Reza Salem, Adrea R. Johnson, Mark A. Foster, Michael R. E. Lamont, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs.” Optics Express 21 (2013): 1335-1343. Abstract
We investigate simultaneously the temporal and optical and radio-frequency spectral properties of parametric frequency combs generated in silicon-nitride microresonators and observe that the system undergoes a transition to a mode-locked state. We demonstrate the generation of sub-200-fs pulses at a repetition rate of 99 GHz. Our calculations show that pulse generation in this system is consistent with soliton modelocking. Ultimately, such parametric devices offer the potential of producing ultra-short laser pulses from the visible to mid-infrared regime at repetition rates from GHz to THz. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Okawachi, Yoshitomo, Reza Salem, Adrea R. Johnson, Kasturi Saha, Jacob S. Levy, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Asynchronous single-shot characterization of high-repetition-rate ultrafast waveforms using a time-lens-based temporal magnifier.” Optics Letters 37 (2012): 4892-4894. Abstract
We demonstrate asynchronous, single-shot characterization of an ultrafast, high-repetition-rate pulse source using a time-lens-based temporal magnifier. We measure a 225 GHz repetition-rate pulse train from a microresonator-based frequency comb. In addition, we show that such a system can be used as a frequency compressor for real-time, high-speed RF spectral characterization. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America
Johnson, Adrea R., Yoshitomo Okawachi, Jacob S. Levy, Jaime Cardenas, Kasturi Saha, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Chip-based frequency combs with sub-100 GHz repetition rates.” Optics Letters 37 (2012): 875-877. Abstract
By fabricating high-Q silicon-nitride spiral resonators, we demonstrate frequency combs spanning over 200 nm with free spectral ranges (FSRs) of 80, 40, and 20 GHz using cascaded four-wave mixing. We characterize the RF beat note for the 20 GHz FSR comb, and the measured linewidth of 3.6 MHz is consistent with thermal fluctuations in the resonator due to amplitude noise of the pump source. These combs represent an important advance towards developing a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based system capable of linking the optical and electronic regimes. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America