Griffith, Austin G., Mengjie Yu, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Jaime Cardenas, Aseema Mohanty, Alexander L. Gaeta, and Michal Lipson. “Coherent mid-infrared frequency combs in silicon-microresonators in the presence of Raman effects.” Opt. Express 24 (2016): 13044–13050. Publisher's Version Abstract
We demonstrate the first low-noise mid-IR frequency comb source using a silicon microresonator. Our observation of strong Raman scattering lines in the generated comb suggests that interplay between Raman and four-wave mixing plays a role in the generated low-noise state. In addition, we characterize, the intracavity comb generation dynamics using an integrated PIN diode, which takes advantage of the inherent three-photon absorption process in silicon.
Yu, Mengjie, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Austin G. Griffith, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Mode-locked mid-infrared frequency combs in a silicon microresonator.” Optica 3, no. 8 (2016): 854 - 860. Publisher's Version Abstract
Mid-infrared (mid-IR) frequency combs have broad applications in molecular spectroscopy and chemical/biological sensing. Recently developed microresonator-based combs in this wavelength regime could enable portable and robust devices using a single-frequency pump field. Here, we demonstrate a mode-locked microresonator-based frequency comb in the mid-IR spanning 2.4–4.3 μm. We observe high pump-to-comb conversion efficiency, in which 40% of the pump power is converted to the output comb power. Utilizing an integrated PIN structure allows for tuning the silicon microresonator and controlling cavity soliton formation via free-carrier detection and control. Our results significantly advance microresonator-based comb technology toward a portable and robust mid-IR spectroscopic device that operates at low pump powers.
Griffith, Austin G., Ryan K. W. Lau, Jaime Cardenas, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Aseema Mohanty, Romy Fain, Yoon Ho Daniel Lee, et al.. “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation.” Nature Communications 6 (2015). Abstract
Optical frequency combs are a revolutionary light source for high-precision spectroscopy because of their narrow linewidths and precise frequency spacing. Generation of such combs in the mid-infrared spectral region (2-20 mm) is important for molecular gas detection owing to the presence of a large number of absorption lines in this wavelength regime. Microresonator-based frequency comb sources can provide a compact and robust platform for comb generation that can operate with relatively low optical powers. However, material and dispersion engineering limitations have prevented the realization of an on-chip integrated mid-infrared microresonator comb source. Here we demonstrate a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible platform for on-chip comb generation using silicon microresonators, and realize a broadband frequency comb spanning from 2.1 to 3.5 mm. This platform is compact and robust and offers the potential to be versatile for use outside the laboratory environment for applications such as real-time monitoring of atmospheric gas conditions.
Lau, Ryan K. W., Michael R. E. Lamont, Austin G. Griffith, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta. “Octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon nanowaveguides.” Optics Letters 39 (2014): 4518-4521. Publisher's Version Abstract
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of octave-spanning supercontinuum generation (SCG) on a silicon chip, spanning from the telecommunications c-band near 1.5 m to the mid-infrared region beyond 3.6 mu m. The SCG presented here is characterized by soliton fission and dispersive radiation across two zero group-velocity dispersion wavelengths. In addition, we numerically investigate the role of multiphoton absorption and free carriers, confirming that these nonlinear loss mechanisms are not detrimental to SCG in this regime. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America