Delay-coupled oscillators exhibit unique phenomena that are not present in systems without delayed coupling. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate mutual synchronisation of two free-running micromechanical oscillators, coupled via light with a total delay 139 ns which is approximately four and a half times the mechanical oscillation time period. This coupling delay, imposed by a finite speed of propagation of light, induces multiple stable states of synchronised oscillations, each with a different oscillation frequency. These states can be accessed by varying the coupling strengths. Our result could enable applications in reconfigurable radio-frequency networks, and novel computing concepts.
We demonstrate a degenerate parametric oscillator in a silicon nitride microresonator. We use two frequency-detuned pump waves to perform parametric four-wave mixing and operate in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime to produce signal and idler fields that are frequency degenerate. Our theoretical modeling shows that this regime enables generation of bimodal phase states, analogous to the chi(2)-based degenerate OPO. Our system offers potential for realization of CMOS-chip-based coherent optical computing and an all-optical quantum random number generator.
We demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum spanning more than 1.4 octaves in a silicon nitride waveguide using sub-100-fs pulses at 1µm generated by either a 53-MHz, diode-pumped ytterbium (Yb) fiber laser or a 1-GHz, Yb:CaAlGdO4 (Yb:CALGO) laser. Our numerical simulations show that the broadband supercontinuum is fully coherent, and a spectral interference measurement is used to verify that the supercontinuum generated with the Yb:CALGO laser possesses a high degree of coherence over the majority of its spectral bandwidth. This coherent spectrum may be utilized for optical coherence tomography, spectroscopy, and frequency metrology.
Optical frequency combs are a revolutionary light source for high-precision spectroscopy because of their narrow linewidths and precise frequency spacing. Generation of such combs in the mid-infrared spectral region (2-20 mm) is important for molecular gas detection owing to the presence of a large number of absorption lines in this wavelength regime. Microresonator-based frequency comb sources can provide a compact and robust platform for comb generation that can operate with relatively low optical powers. However, material and dispersion engineering limitations have prevented the realization of an on-chip integrated mid-infrared microresonator comb source. Here we demonstrate a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible platform for on-chip comb generation using silicon microresonators, and realize a broadband frequency comb spanning from 2.1 to 3.5 mm. This platform is compact and robust and offers the potential to be versatile for use outside the laboratory environment for applications such as real-time monitoring of atmospheric gas conditions.
We describe a novel technique for performing a single-shot optical cross-correlation in nanowaveguides. Our scheme is based on four-wave mixing (FWM) between two orthogonally polarized input signals propagating with different velocities due to polarization mode dispersion. The cross-correlation is determined by measuring the spectrum of the idler wave generated by the FWM process.
Synchronization of many coupled oscillators is widely found in nature and has the potential to revolutionize timing technologies. Here, we demonstrate synchronization in arrays of silicon nitride micromechanical oscillators coupled in an all-to-all configuration purely through an optical radiation field. We show that the phase noise of the synchronized oscillators can be improved by almost 10 dB below the phase noise limit for each individual oscillator. These results open a practical route towards synchronized oscillator networks.
We demonstrate a photonic circuit with integrated long-lived quantum memories. Precharacterized quantum nodes-diamond microwaveguides containing single, stable, negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers-are deterministically integrated into low-loss silicon nitride waveguides. These quantum nodes efficiently couple into the single-mode waveguides with >1 Mcps collected into the waveguide, have narrow single-scan linewidths below 400 MHz, and exhibit long electron spin coherence times up to 120 mu s. Our system facilitates the assembly of multiple quantum nodes with preselected properties into a photonic integrated circuit with near unity yield, paving the way towards the scalable fabrication of quantum information processors.
In order to achieve efficient parametric frequency comb generation in microresonators, external control of coupling between the cavity and the bus waveguide is necessary. However, for passive monolithically integrated structures, the coupling gap is fixed and cannot be externally controlled, making tuning the coupling inherently challenging. We design a dual-cavity coupled microresonator structure in which tuning one ring resonance frequency induces a change in the overall cavity coupling condition. We demonstrate wide extinction tunability with high efficiency by engineering the ring coupling conditions. Additionally, we note a distinct dispersion tunability resulting from coupling two cavities of slightly different path lengths, and present a new method of modal dispersion engineering. Our fabricated devices consist of two coupled high quality factor silicon nitride microresonators, where the extinction ratio of the resonances can be controlled using integrated microheaters. Using this extinction tunability, we optimize comb generation efficiency as well as provide tunability for avoiding higher-order mode-crossings, known for degrading comb generation. The device is able to provide a 110-fold improvement in the comb generation efficiency. Finally, we demonstrate open eye diagrams using low-noise phase-locked comb lines as a wavelength-division multiplexing channel. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America
We demonstrate a novel platform to control the thermo-optic sensitivity in nanophotonic devices by evanescent coupling of light with bimaterial cantilevers. The cantilever can be designed to provide a negative thermal feedback to passively compensate for the positive thermo-optic effect in the waveguide core. We demonstrate athermal operation over 14 deg in cantilever coupled Silicon ring resonators, limited only by fabrication tolerances. We also show how the same platform can provide positive thermal feedback and overcome the material thermo-optic limit for increasing sensitivity of resonant detectors and thermal imagers.
We report the observation of all-optical squeezing in an on-chip monolithically integrated CMOScompatible platform. Our device consists of a low-loss silicon nitride microring optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a gigahertz cavity linewidth. We measure 1.7 dB (5 dB corrected for losses) of subshot-noise quantum correlations between bright twin beams generated in the microring four-wave-mixing OPO pumped above threshold. This experiment demonstrates a compact, robust, and scalable platform for quantum-optics and quantum-information experiments on chip.
We demonstrate strong nonlinearities of n(2) = 8.6 +/- 1.1 x 10(-15) cm(2) W-1 in single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC) at a wavelength of 2360 nm. We use a high-confinement SiC waveguide fabricated based on a high-temperature smart-cut process. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America
Leveraging the spatial modes of multimode waveguides using mode-division multiplexing on an integrated photonic chip allows unprecedented scaling of bandwidth density for on-chip communication. Switching channels between waveguides is critical for future scalable optical networks, but its implementation in multimode waveguides must address how to simultaneously control modes with vastly different optical properties. Here we present a platform for switching signals between multimode waveguides based on individually processing the spatial mode channels using single-mode elements. Using this wavelength-division multiplexing-compatible platform, we demonstrate a 1×2 multimode switch for a silicon chip that routes four data channels with low (<−16.8 dB) crosstalk. We show bit-error rates below 10−9 and power penalties below 1.4 dB on all channels while routing 10 Gb/s data when each channel is input and routed separately. The switch exhibits an additional power penalty of less than 2.4 dB when all four channels are simultaneously routed. These results enable individual processing of multimode signals and high-bandwidth, flexible optical networks.
Frequency locking and other phenomena emerging from nonlinear interactions between mechanical oscillators are of scientific and technological importance. However, existing schemes to observe such behavior are not scalable over distance. We demonstrate a scheme to couple two independent mechanical oscillators, separated in frequency by 80 kHz and situated far from each other (3.2 km), via light. Using light as the coupling medium enables this scheme to have low loss and be extended over long distances. This scheme is reversible and can be generalized for arbitrary network configurations.
Graphene has generated exceptional interest as an optoelectronic material(1,2) because its high carrier mobility(3,4) and broadband absorption(5) promise to make extremely fast and broadband electro-optic devices possible(6-9). Electro-optic graphene modulators previously reported, however, have been limited in bandwidth to a few gigahertz(10-15) because of the large capacitance required to achieve reasonable voltage swings. Here, we demonstrate a graphene electro-optic modulator based on resonator loss modulation at critical coupling(16) that shows drastically increased speed and efficiency. Our device operates with a 30 GHz bandwidth and with a state-of-the-art modulation efficiency of 15 dB per 10 V. We also show the first high-speed large-signal operation in a graphene modulator, paving the way for fast digital communications using this platform. The modulator uniquely uses silicon nitride waveguides, an otherwise completely passive material platform, with promising applications for ultra-low-loss broadband structures and nonlinear optics.